1. In 1794, Absalom Jones and his followers dedicated African Church of St. Thomas in Philadelphia. On August 12, 1794, the St. Thomas parishioners affiliated with the Protestant Episcopal Church.
2. In 1794, Richard Allen organized Philadelphia’s Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church.
3. In 1862, Congress approves the rights of African Americans to bear arms to fight in the Civil War and enlist in the Union Army by passing two laws, the Confiscation and Militia acts. Over 208,000 African Americans and their white officers will serve in the Union Army, with over 38,000 losing their lives.
4. In 1863, Unions troops, with First Kansas volunteers playing a leading role, route rebels at Honey Springs, Indian Territory. African American troops capture the colors of a Texas regiment.
5. In 1888, Granville T. Woods Received Patent for Tunnel construction for electric railway
6. In 1888, Miriam E. Benjamin, a School Teacher, received Patent for Gong And Signal Chairs for Hotels
7. In 1944, An ammunitions depot at Port Chicago, California explodes, killing 320 men including 202 African Americans assigned by the Navy to handle explosives. The resulting refusal of 258 African Americans to return to the dangerous work formed the basis of the trial and conviction of 50 of the men in what will be come known as the Port Chicago Mutiny.
8. In 1967, Three days of riots and protests occurred in Cairo, Illinois. The incident began with a so-called jail house suicide of Pvt. Robert Hunt. He was a young Black soldier on leave in his hometown of Cairo. The alleged suicide fired up the town’s African-American community. The police said Hunt had hanged himself with his T-shirt, but Cairo’s Black residents had the evidence to challenge that story. The suspicious death touched off three days of riots and protests, followed by a seven-year renewal of civil rights activities in the city, one of the latest, and longest-sustained such struggles in the nation at that time.
9. In 1977, The Junior Black Academy of Arts and Letters, Inc. (JBAAL) was founded. It was formed by Curtis King with C. Eric Lincoln, John O. Killens, Margaret Walker Alexander, Frederick O’Neal, Jean Hutson, Romare Bearden, and Doris Saunders. Its home base was Dallas, Texas. The formation of JBAAL directly involves young and aspiring artists and scholars.
10. In 1981, Fulton County (Atlanta) grand jury indicted Wayne B. Williams, a twenty-three-year-old photographer, for the murder of two of the twenty-eight Black youths killed in a series of slayings and disappearances in Atlanta. William denied the charges but was convicted in February, 1982. The Murders continued after he was arrested.
In 2014, Eric Garner while selling single cigarettes on the street, was murdered in Staten Island, New York City, after a New York City police officer put him in a chokehold for about 15 to 19 seconds while arresting him. The New York City Medical Examiner’s Office attributed Garner’s death to a combination of a chokehold, compression of his chest, and poor health. NYPD policy prohibits the use of chokeholds.