Nothing will motivate a man to move forward faster than knowing what's behind Him.

1. In 1863, Union troops entered Port Hudson. With the fall of Vicksburg (on July 4) and Port Hudson, Union controlled Mississippi River and Confederacy was cut into two sections. Eight Black regiments played important roles in siege of Port Hudson.

2. In 1868, Francis L. Cardozo installed as secretary of the state of South Carolina and became the first Black cabinet officer on the state level.

3. In 1893, Daniel Hale Willims, Surgeon and Educator, performs the world’s first open-heart surgery at Chicago’s Provident Hospital (which he founded in 1891) on James Cornish, who had been stabbed in the chest and was dying from blood accumulation around the heart. Dr. Williams brought Mr.Cornish to surgery, where he proceeded to open his chest, drain the blood and successfully sutured the pericardium.

4. In 1895, J. L. Love received Patent for Plasterers’ hawk

5. In 1948, Satchel Page became the first black to pitch in the major league.

6. In 1955, E. Frederic Morrow appointed administrative aide to President Eisenhower and became the first Black to hold an executive position on the White House staff.

7. In 1970, Colin Luther Powell Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel:

8. In 1971, Clergyman and activist Leon H. Sullivan is awarded the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal for his achievements in transmitting “the social gospel into economic progress for his people.”

9. In 1972, Muntu Dance Theatre was founded in Chicago.

10. In 1978, Larry Holmes wins a decision over Ken Norton for the WBC crown.

11. In 1979, Dr. Walter Massey named director of the Argonne national Laboratory.

12. In 1987, Percy E. Sutton, former New York State legislator, president of the Borough of Manhattan, founder of Inner City Broadcasting and owner of the Apollo Theatre, receives the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal.

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