1. In 1781, James Armistead, an American slave, infiltrates the headquarters of General Cornwallis and becomes a servant hired to spy on the Americans. In reality, Armistead is a cunning double agent working for the French ally General Lafayette and reports on the movements and troop strength of the British. His reports are critical to the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown.
2. In 1791, The nondenominational African Church is founded by Richard Allen, Absalom Jones, and Benjamin Rush.
3. In 1948, The Cleveland Indians sign Leroy “Satchel” Paige at the age of 42. He will be the American League ‘Rookie of the Year’.
4. In 1975, “For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow is Not Enuf,” a play by 26-year-old Ntozake Shange, premieres in New York City.
5. In 1994, Panama withdraws its offer to the United States to accept thousands of Haitian refugees.
6. In 1997, Harvey Johnson is sworn in as the first African American mayor in Jackson, Mississippi.
7. In 2002, A white Inglewood, California, police officer, Jeremy Morse, was video taped slamming 16-year-old Donovan Jackson (who is Black) onto the trunk of a squad car and then punching him in the head at a gas station. Bystander Mitchell Crooks made the videotape. The video showed Morse lifting a handcuffed Jackson to his feet and slamming the youth’s face into a car hood. Morse, who has a streak of blood next to his ear, then struck Jackson on the face with his fist.