1. In 1863, The Dutch West Indies abolishes slavery.
2. In 1870, James W. Smith is the first African American to enter the U.S. Military Academy (West Point).
3. In 1873, Henry O. Flipper of Georgia is the second African American to enter West Point .
4. In 1889, Frederick Douglass is named minister to Haiti.
5. In 1889, Ninety-four Blacks reported lynched in 1889.
6. In 1898, The 10th Calvary charges Spanish Forces at El Caney, Cuba, and relieves Teddy Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders.”
7. In 1924, Roland Hayes, was named a soloist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Earlier, he had received the Spingarn Medal for “so finely” interpreting the beauty of the Negro folk song.
8. In 1976, Kenneth A. Gibson, Mayor of Newark, N.J. defeate New Orleans Mayor Moon Landrieu Becoming the first Black President of the U.S. Conference of Mayors.
9. In 1988, Clark Atlanta University was founded. It is one of more than 100 Historical Black Colleges and Universities in America.
10. In 1991, Former chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals, Clarence Thomas is nominated by President George H. Bush as associate justice of the Supreme Court to replace retiring justice Thurgood Marshall. Thomas’ Senate confirmation hearings will be the most controversial in history and will include charges of sexual harassment by a former employee, Professor Anita Hill.
11. In 1997, Audrey F. Manley begins her appointment as president of Spelman College. She is the first alumna of Spelman to be named president in the college’s 116-year history. Formerly acting surgeon general of the United States, Manley had served in key leadership positions in the U.S. Public Health Service for the previous 20 years.
12. In 2002, Black Farmers & Agriculturalists Association staged a “prayer vigil and sit in.” Black farmers from Georgia, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Mississippi and other southern states, and the national president of Black Farmers & Agriculturalists Association (BFAA), Gary R. Grant, participated. The first of five protests took place at the Farm Services Agency (FSA) offices in Brownsville and Bolivar, Tennessee. It was in support of Black farmers who had been denied or delayed operating loans.