1. In 1839, Cinque, origially Senghbe, the son of a Mende king, along with several other Africans, is kidnapped and sold into slavery in Cuba. Cinque and his companions will later carry out the famous successful revolt upon the slave ship Amistad.
2. In 1866, Congress authorized the creation of two cavalry and four infantry regiments, “which shall be composed of colored men.” They were organized as the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 38th 39th, 40th and 41st Infantry.
3. In 1927, Anthony Overton, president of Victory Life Insurance Company, receives the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal for “his successful business career climaxed by admission of his company as the first Negro organization permitted to do business under the rigid requirements of the State of New York.”
4. In 1935, Mary McLeod Bethune, founder and president of Bethune-Cookman College, receives the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. Bethune is honored for speaking out against racism and injustice “in the South as well as in the North, without compromise or fear.”
5. In 1946, Thurgood Marshall receives the Spingarn Medal for his “distinguished service as a lawyer before the Supreme Court of the United States.”
6. In 1951, The Amos ‘n’ Andy television show came on the air.
7. In 1964, Organization for Afro-American Unity founded in New York by Malcolm X.
8. In 1970, Muhammad Ali, (born Cassius Clay) stands before the Supreme Court regarding his refusal of induction into the US Army during the Vietnam War(Clay v- United States). He is asked “How can you be a pacifist opposed to the idea of war?” One of Ali’s responses goes as follows, “I am not going ten thousand miles from here to help murder and kill and burn poor people simply to help continue the domination of white slave masters over the darker people.”
9. In 1978, Supreme Court handed down Bakke decision.