1. In 1919, The Black Star Line of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) is incorporated.
2. In 1926, Langston Hughes’ articles “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain” appears in “Nation “magazine. In it, Hughes expresses African Americans’ bold new confidence to create a new art during the Harlem Renaissance. “We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark skinned selves without fear or shame.”
3. In 1970, Charles Rangel defeated Adam Clayton Powell in Democratic primary in Harlem, ending the political career of one of the major political symbols of the post-World War II period.
4. In 2003, The U. S. Supreme Court upheld affirmative action. A divided Supreme Court reaffirmed colleges’ right to give an edge to minority applicants to attain campus diversity, but raised the threshold in hopes of ending affirmative action within 25 years.
5. In 2005, A division of Nextel Communications publicly apologized for its racially explicit advertising for its cell phone.