1. In 1878, Blanche Kelso Bruce appointed register of treasury by President Garfield.
2. In 1910, George Edmund Haynes formed the National Urban League.
3. In 1918, Mary Turner was lynched because she dared raise her voice. Her husband, Hayes Turner, was among 13 people lynched in two weeks in and around Valdosta, Georgia. The lynchings took place because one brutal white man, who was known to abuse workers so severely that he was only able to attract workers by getting them through the convict labor system, beat the wrong Black man too many times. Sidney Johnson shot and killed the brutal Hampton Smith, and in response the white people of the area started apprehending, beating, and lynching Black men believed to be associated with Sidney Johnson (even though many of those lynched were not). Mary Turner was nineteen years old and eight months pregnant, and her husband was lynched. She openly denounced the lynchings and threatened to have the men who killed her husband arrested.
After Mary Turner’s lynching, an investigative reporter stated that Turner was lynched because she made “unwise remarks.” The mob, it was reported, “took exception to her remarks as well as her attitude.” Her “defiant voice” was the impetus for mob retaliation. The mob action was particularly brutal. Mary Turner was hung by her ankles, lowered face down from a tree. Her clothing was set afire while she was alive. When she was dead, one of the mobsters slit her belly open, and her fetus came out, landing in a pool of blood. Then the sick and brutal white men crushed the infant’s skull.
4. In 1965, Patricia Harris is named U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg. She is the first African American woman to become an ambassador for the U.S.
5. In 1968, Piano stylist and vocalist, Bobby Short, gains national attention as he presents a concert with Mabel Mercer at New York’s Town Hall. He had been the featured artist at the intimate Hotel Carlisle for years.
6. In 1973, “You Are the Sunshine of My Life”. by Stevie Wonder moves to the number one position on the “Billboard” pop music chart.
7. In 1991, Willy T. Ribbs becomes the first African American driver to qualify for the Indianapolis 500.
8. In 2006 The University of San Francisco gave an honorary degree to its undefeated 1951 football team.