1. In 1866, white civilians and police killed forty-six African-Americans and injured many more, burning ninety houses, twelve schools, and four churches in Memphis, Tennessee.
2. In 1887, E. R. Lewis received Patent for Spring gun
3. In 1887, E. W. Stewart Received Patent for Punching Machine
4. In 1902, African American jockey Jimmy Winkfield wins his second Kentucky Derby in a row astride Alan-a-Dale. With Winkfield’s wins, African American jockeys have won 15 of 28 Derby races.
5. In 1948, Supreme Court ruled in Shelley v. Kraemer that federal and state courts could not enforce restrictive covenants which barred persons from owning or occupying property because of their race.