- In 1861, Congressman Thaddeus Stevens called resolution providing for the enforcement of the Second Confiscation Act of July, 1962. The measure, which provided for the distribution of public and confiscated land to the freedmen, was defeated.
2. In 1872, T. J. Boyd, inventor, is awarded a patent for an apparatus for detaching horses from carriages.
3. In 1872, T. J. Byrd received Patent for Improvement in Neck Yokes for Wagons
4. In 1883, The shoe-lasting machine invented by Jan Matzeliger not only revolutionized the shoe industry but also made Lynn, Massachusetts, the “shoe capital of the world.” Born in Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, Matzeliger found employment in the government machine works at the age of 10. Eight years later he immigrated to the United States, settling in Philadelphia, where he worked in s shoe factory. He later moved to New England, settling permanently in Lynn.
The Industrial Revolution had by this time resulted in the invention of machines to cut, sew, and tack shoes, but none had been perfected to last a shoe. Seeing this, Matzeliger lost little time in designing and patenting just such a device, one which he refined over the years to a point where it could adjust a shoe, arrange the leather over the sole, drive in the nails, and deliver the finished product- all in one minute’s time. Matzeliger’s patent was subsequently bought by Sydney W. Winslow, who established the United Shoe Machine Company. The continued success of this business brought about a 50% reduction in the price of shoes across the nation, doubled wages, and improved working conditions for millions of people dependent on the shoe industry for their livelihood.
5. In 1895, C. J. Dorticus received Patent for Device for applying coloring liquids to sides of soles or heels of shoes
6. In 1939, The New Negro Theater is founded in Los Angeles, California by Langston Hughes.
7. in 1941, the U.S. Army establishes the 99th Pursuit Squadron, America’s first all-black flying unit. They’ll go down in history as the “Tuskegee Airmen” — a reference to the group’s Alabama training field.
8. In 1968, Howard University students seized administration building. Students were demanding campus reform and Black-oriented curriculum. Civil rights forces mobilized in support of striking hospital workers in Charleston, South Carolina.
9. In 1975, James B. Parsons becomes the first African American chief judge of a federal court, the U.S. District Court of Chicago. In 1961, Parsons became the first African American district court judge