Nothing will motivate a man to move forward faster than knowing what's behind Him.

1. In 1739,  The British are forced to sign a peace treaty with Maroons and  escaped slave societies in Jamaica.

2. In 1780,  Pennsylvania becomes the first state to abolish slavery.

3. In 1864,   Rebecca Lee graduates from the New England Female Medical College. She along with Rebecca Cole and Susan McKinney is one of the first African American female physicians.

4. In 1867,  Howard University, Washington DC, chartered.

5. In 1871,   J. Milton Turner named minister to Liberia and became the first Black diplomat accredited to an African county. James W. Mason was named minister in March, 1870, but never traveled to his post.

6. In 1875,  Civil Rights Bill enacted by Congress. Bill gave Blacks the right to equal treatment in inns, public conveyances, theaters and other places of public amusement. It will be overturned by the Supreme Court in 1883.

7. In 1892,  The pastry fork was invented by  Ms. Anna M. Mangin.

8. In 1898,  B. F. Jackson received Patent for Heating Apparatus

9. In 1925,  On this day, ‘Survey Graphic’ published a special issue titled “Harlem, Mecca of the New Negro.” By the end of the year, editor Alain Locke had reprinted and expanded upon the writings from this issue, producing a full-length anthology of African-American writing called ‘The New Negro.’ This anthology, known as the Manifesto of the Harlem Renaissance, included works by established figures such as James Weldon Johnson, William Stanley Braithwaite, W.E.B. DuBoise, and Claude McKay.

10. In 1949,  Joe Louis retired as heavyweight boxing after holding the title for a record eleven years and eight months.

11. In 1960,  Alabama State Board of Education expelled nine Alabama State students for participating in sit-in demonstrations.

12. In 1960,  Associated Press reported that more than one thousand Blacks had been arrested in sit-in demonstrations.

13. In 1960,  Four national chain stores announced on October 17 that counters in about 150 stores in 112 cities in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Texas, Tennessee, Missouri, Maryland, Florida and Oklahoma had been integrated.

14. In 1960,  Montgomery, Ala., police broke up protest demonstration on Alabama State campus and arrested thirty-five students, a teacher and her husband.

15. In 1960,  Police used tear gas to break up student protest demonstration at Tallahassee, Florida.

16. In 1960,   Pope John elevated Bishop Laurian Rugambwa of Tanganyika to College of Cardinals, the first Black cardinal in the modern era.

17. In 1960,  San Antonio, Texas, became first major Southern city to integrate lunch counters.

18. In 1960,  Through the 30th, One thousand Alabama State students marched on state capitol and held protest meeting.

19. In 1963,   Air Force Captain Edward J. Dwight Jr. named to fourth class of aerospace research pilots at Edwards Air Base and became the first Black astronaut candidate. He was dropped from the program in 1965.

20. In 1963,  Carl T. Rowan named ambassador of Finland.

21. In 1963,  Through the 30th, Emancipation Centennial protest began with voter registration campaign in Greenwood, Mississippi.

22. In 1967,   U.S. House of Representatives expelled Rep. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. by a vote of 307 to 116. Civil rights leaders said Powell was ousted because of his race.

23. In 1971,  Defense Department limited electronic surveilance after disclosure of “civil disturbance information collection plan” which directed the gathering of information on civil rights groups.

24. In 1979,  New York Times comments on findings of archaeologist Bruce Williams finds at Qutsul. Evidence leads many to believe that Ta-Seti (most ancient Nubia) developed the world’s first divine kingship, monarchy, which then travelled up the Nile to Egypt.

25. In 2002,  Miss District of Columbia Shauntay Hinton is crowned Miss USA.

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