1. Today, Seventh and last day of Kwanzaa Celebrating the Seventh of Seven Principles, Imani (Faith)
2. In 1804, Jean Jacques Dessalines proclaimed independence of Haiti, the second republic in the Western Hemisphere.
3. In 1808, Federal law prohibiting the importation of African slaves went into effect, the international slave trade was abolished..
4. In 1808, The African Benevolent Society for Education is founded.
5. In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison published first issue of abolitionist journal, The Liberator.
6. In 1854, The oldest Historically Black University in the US, Lincoln University, chartered as Ashmun Institute in Oxford, Pennsylvania.
7. In 1860, A law went into effect in Arkansas which prohibited the employment of free blacks on boats and ships navigating the rivers of that state.
8. In 1861, President Lincoln declares slavery in Confederate states unlawful.
9. In 1863, President Lincoln signed Emancipation Proclamation which freed slaves in rebel states with exception of thirteen parishes (including New Orleans) in Louisiana, forty-eight countries in West Virginia, seven countries (including Norfolk) in Eastern Virginia. Proclamation did not apply to slaves in Border States.
10. In 1884, C. L. Mitchell Received Patent for Phoneterism.
11. In 1889, Granville T. Woods receives patent for the circuit breaker.
12. In 1895, Matthew A. Cherry received a patent for the streetcar fender. Before this device was developed, streetcars would become incredibly damaged when they collided with other objects, often leading to significant repairs. Cherry recognized this problem, and invented (which was then called) the fender, which is a piece of metal that attaches to the front of a streetcar and acts as a shock absorber. This can protect the front of the car from needing extensive repairs, and absorb some of the impact from the collision, which can potentially protect passengers from injury. Today, the streetcar fender in some form is used on almost every automobile manufactured anywhere in the world and is commonly referred to as a “bumper.”
12. In 1916, First issue of The Journal of Negro History published.
13. In 1923, The Rosewood massacre, a racially motivated massacre of black people and destruction of a black town took place during the first week of January 1923 in rural Levy County, Florida. Eyewitness accounts suggested a death toll upwards of 150.
14. In 1956, Sudan proclaimed independent.
15. In 1960, Cameroon gains independence
16. In 1997, Kofi Annan of Ghana becomes first black secretary General of United Nations.
17. In 1997, The former prison for Nelson Mandela and many other South Africans is turned in to a museum at Robben Island.