1. In 1865, South Carolina issues one of the first set of black codes “to regulate the relations of persons of color”. Among the codes included those of illegal interracial marriages, master apprentice relations and service contracts.
2. In 1921, Fifty-nine Blacks were reported lynched.
3. In 1921, Spingarn Medal awarded to actor Charles S. Gilpin for his performance in the title role of Emperor Jones.
4. In 1921, The Negro Renaissance, a period of extraordinary activity on the part of Black artists and extraordinary receptivity on the part of the white public, reached a peak in the twenties. Among the writers who contributed to the movement were Claude Mckay, “Harlem Shadows”, 1922; Jean Toomer, “Cane”, 1923; Alain Locke.
5. In 1956, Montgomery buses are integrated, boycott ended on this say, Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr. were national heros, and the Supreme Court had ruled that segregation on city buses was unconstitutional.
6. In 1959, Spingarn Medal was presented to Edward Kennedy (“Duke”) Ellington, composer, pianist and jazz pioneer, for his contributions to the arts.
7. In 1959, Citizens of Deerfield, Ill., authorized a plan which blocked building of interracial housing development.
8. In 1959, Motown Records established by Berry Gordy Jr.
9. In 1972, Spingarn Medal awarded to Gordon B. Parks “in recognition of his unique creativity, as exemplified by his outstanding achievements as photographer, writer, film-maker and composer.”
10. In 1976, Patricia R. Harris named secretary of housing and urban development by President-elect Jimmy Carter.
11. In 1976, Spingarn Medal presented to Alvin Ailey “in recognition of his international pre-eminence in the field of dance.”
12. In 1986, Michael Griffith is struck by an automobile and killed while escaping from a mob of whites who were beating him, in Howard Beach area of Queens, NY.
13. In 1988, Jesse Jackson urges Black Americans to refer to themselves as “African-American”